Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is one of a family of biologically active small protein molecules known as cytokines. Cytokines are produced by a number of different cell types, including macrophages, monocytes, fibroblasts, and dendritic cells. (1,2,3) IL-1β is an example of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, since it is involved in the body’s inflammatory response to acute or chronic infections, or to conditions that cause a persistent low-grade inflammatory state, such as obesity. (4,5) IL-1β is therefore frequently used as a bio-marker of inflammation. (6,7) A study with normal mouse parotid acinar cells has shown that they synthesize IL-1β and store it in secretory granules. The IL-1β is released from the granules following α- and β-adrenergic stimulation. (8) Relationships between IL-1β levels in blood and saliva are not fully understood.